|Title||Quality and Consumer Acceptance of Berry Fruit Pomace–Fortified Specialty Mustard|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Davis, L, Jung, J, Colonna, A, Hasenbeck, A, Gouw, V, Zhao, Y|
|Journal||Journal of Food Science|
|Keywords||berry fruit pomace, bioactive compounds, consumer acceptance, simulated gastrointestinal digestion, specialty mustard|
Abstract Blueberry pomace (BP) and cranberry pomace (CP) are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolics. This study aimed to develop berry fruit pomace (FP)-fortified specialty mustard with elevated bioactive compounds and ascertain consumer acceptance of a new product. Wet BP and CP were ground and incorporated into Dijon-style mustard at concentrations of 15%, 20%, and 25% (w/w). Total dietary fiber (TDF), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) were evaluated for samples obtained from both chemical extraction (CE) and simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD). Physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance were also examined. Increasing concentrations of BP or CP significantly increased TDF of mustards from both CE (AOAC methods) and SGD, with the highest values from 25% fortifications. TDF from AOAC ranged from 26.86% to 40.16% for BP and from 26.86% to 38.42% for CP, while TDF from SGD ranged from 31.02% to 42.68% for BP and 31.02% to 63.65% for CP. From CE, no significant variation of TPC was found, but RSA significantly increased with increasing concentration of BP and CP. TPC from SGD was higher than that from CE, where TPC decreased with increasing concentration of BP or CP. RSA from SGD was lower than that from CE. Sensory scores of pomace-fortified samples were significantly lower than the control; however, informed panelists scored BP-fortified mustard significantly higher on appearance and color liking than uninformed panelists. This study demonstrated that with proper marketing, the utilization of FP in condiments is a viable option for potential health benefits. Practical Application This research is applicable to multiple areas of the food industry. Juice manufacturers or other companies that process raw agricultural produce can use this research as another way to repurpose biowaste, and companies making specialty condiments can use this research to inform future product development. General considerations discussed regarding the use of berry fruit pomace can be applied by any company interested in pomace reuse.